Haematology and Immunohematology lab

Introduction

Hematology is a scientific study of blood. Blood  is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells.

There are 3 kinds of cells which are: red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes).

Each kind of blood cells have its specific role in human body.

  • White blood cells have the role of body defense against bacterial, parasitic and viral infections.
  • Red blood cells transports oxygen form the lungs to the cells of the body and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. They also carry nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract to the cells
  • And platelets have the role of hemostasis or preventing blood loss from hemorrhage. When blood vessels are injured.

In this Hematology lab we teach the students how to analyse the structure or morphology of blood cells, number of all kinds of blood cells because there are the normal ranges or reference ranges for each kind of blood cell in a normal or healthy people.

And if there are changes in morphology or number of blood cells, we can know the real etiology of diseases based also on functions of those blood cells.

And in immunohematology lab, we teach the students how they can know the blood type of a people (A,B, AB and O) blood group and also the rhesus (positive or negative).

Students of all levels (level I, level II, level III and level IV) of Biomedical Laboratory sciences department (divided in a group of 10-15 students)  use this lab in order of put in practice what they have learnt theorically in class in the following modules:

LEVELS MODULE TITLES
I GENERAL HAEMATOLOGY
II HAEMATOLOGY II AND IMMUNOHAEMATOLOGY I
III HAEMATOLOGY III AND IMMUNOHAEMATOLOGY II
IV HAEMATOLOGY IV AND IMMUNOHAEMATOLOGY III

Main tasks or tests taught and performed in Hematology and Immunohematology lab

  • Complete or full blood count using Humacount Automate machine
  • Red and white blood cells count manually using Hemocytometer (improver Neubauer counting chamber); turk and hayem solution as reagents
  • ESR (Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate)
  • To make thin blood smears then stain them
  • Differential leucocytes count using microscope, slides and may grunward stain
  • ABO Blood grouping using Beth-Vincent method with anti sera.
  • Hematocrit measurement using Humax machine
  • ELISA: In our lab, the ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) is performed to diagnose the diseases. We do ELISA of Hepatitis C, Rubella, free prostate specific antigen (fPSA), Hormone like cortisol, T3, T4, TSH.

Purposes or objectives of Hematology and immunohematology lab

  • To teach the students the principle, procedures and results interpretation of all tests analyzed or performed in Hematology and Immunohematology lab.
  • To teach the students how to put in practice what they have leant theoretically in class by performing hematological tests (i.e., CBC, Differential leucocytes count, Blood grouping, ESR, HCT)
  • To teach the students and explain standard operating procedures and quality control in the hematology  laboratory.
  • To familiarize and adapt to the hematology laboratory working environment and biosafety and biosecurity procedures.
  • To teach the students how to prepare and store reagents and how to stain blood films with routine and special stains.
  • To teach the students how to use personal protective equipment (PPE) for self protection and first aid kit and eye wash in case of accident.
  • To teach the students wastes management of all wastes in the lab

 

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